We are all well aware that organic has become a new buzz word in food industry where people are choosing only organic varieties that are grown ]naturally without using man-made chemicals. The same definition applies to gardening also where the process involves natural methods of growing plants replacing synthetic fertilizers & pesticides. Traditional gardeners may find this concept a bit confusing because some of them are still using the same old methods in growing their gardens. Too many questions arise when we think about going organic in terms of supplying the required nutrients, pest control, plant diseases etc. Lets us see the important objectives of organic gardening through which we can accomplish growing healthy plants without using artificial materials.
Organic gardening is not only about avoiding the harmful chemicals but extracting the benefits of natural resources to provide a balanced ecosystem for growing healthy plants. One of the most important things that influence the growth of a plant is soil. Generally, gardeners mix compost to the natural soil to add the rich nutrients and beneficial microbes that can enhance the growth of their gardens. To restore the vitality of depleting soil, compost can be made organically at home by using the recycles of kitchen waste, introducing beneficial microbes & insects to the soil, adding manures of the chickens & cows etc. You need to be extra cautious if you are using it on food crops because some of the fruits and vegetable peels may contain chemical residues on their peels which can turn harmful to your garden.
Organic ground covering
Ground covers called mulches are generally used to protect the soil that is surrounding the plants or between the rows of the plants. In organic methods, mulch is prepared using organic matter such as straw, grass clippings, leaves and other similar materials that easily decomposes to give a positive effect both on the ground as well as the plant. Sometimes gardeners grow certain plants as living mulches along with the main crop so that it not only improves soil fertility but also hinders the growth of weeds. When mulch decomposes and mixes with top soil, it helps in moisture retention, acts as a food for beneficial microorganisms, and also enhances the growth of plant roots.
Natural pest control
When it comes to gardening one of the biggest threats to the plant growth is the bad attack of pests and insects. While some insects do not cause any harm to the gardens, others go beyond the danger levels and destroy the entire yard. Synthetic pesticides can be more toxic and harmful especially for vegetable gardens. Some of the common crops like tomatoes, squash/zucchini and peaches are more difficult to manage because they are more vulnerable for pest attacks. Hence gardeners have to be extra cautious and use products that are made with natural materials to manage these pests under control.
What is a PCB?
The acronym PCB stands for Printed Circuit Board. PCBs are a versatile and very critical part of an electronic circuit, they are the crucial part in an electronic equipment.
PCBs are basically no other than electronic circuits designed in a beautiful way on an insulating substrate. Apart from the aesthetic appearance, they also bring other benefits like more complex circuiting, easy component placement and better trouble shooting capabilities. The conducting links consist of etched or deposited conducting tracks unlike traditional wire connections.
PCBs have evolved over the years and there are many types of them used in the industry. Their suitability is a function of the application, size and the working environment it has to be used.
An early PCB
The first formal PCB came into effect was a PCB circuit for radio developed by Dr. Paul Eisler. Though the PCB didn’t achieve the deserved recognition in the earlier stages, it only gained importance during the World War II.
The earlier PCB manufacturing techniques were mainly based on neat circuiting for reliability and durability but the reduction in size came as an added advantage. The manufacturing process were mainly based on chemical acid etching method and turret boards.
Today’s approaches to PCB manufacturing are far superior than the earlier techniques with more merits like size reduction, working environment suitability and extensive enhancement in data transfer capabilities.
In simple applications, single and double sided PCB boards are used. Single sided PCBs are conductively etched on one surface and the other surface is used for soldering the legs of the components to be mounted on the circuit. In double sided PCB boards, the other side is also etched or left fully cladded to allow it to be used for signal source or ground common.
The more advanced multilayer PCB were used for massive size reduction and added features in a lesser space. The multilayer PCB consisted of multiple layers of designed circuit boards sandwiched together with the help of a non conducting laminating material in between.
With technological advancement, the PCB has not lagged behind. To keep in pace with the industry, software applications for circuit designing were invented. With this, the 2D and 2.5D trend in the PCB manufacturing started booming giving them an extra edge over their earlier counterparts. They have reduced dimensions, more features and better data transfer capabilities. With latest tools available, the track resolution as small as a few 1000th parts of an inch can be achieved.
Significance of PCBs
The significance of PCBs can not be overlooked. It has revolutionized the consumer and industrial electronics. As a result, we can now witness the miniaturization of gadgets and equipment within a short span of time. They come now loaded with extra features at the same time. The mass production of the PCB has reduced the cost of manufacturing and has helped the electronic industry to cater to the need of consumer in a more economical way. As a result, the technology has become cheaper and is easily accessible. It has led to over all development of the living status and the mankind in whole.
The future is likely to see more new applications and innovation. This is likely to happen: with the dimensions getting smaller, more features will get loaded and extremely fast data transfer capabilities. The development of the 3D technology and the quest for new materials are on to meet the needs and expectations of rapidly transforming electronic industry. With the developments expected to be concluded in due time, we can expect to witness healthy and important changes in the years come.
Ad servers are an important evolution in web technology. Ad servers have made the job of publishing, placing, targeting and timing of ads pretty easy these days. However, for a new business, an important question is whether they should go for third-party ad servers or they should have their own servers. This article seeks to offer a clarity in this regard.
What is third-party ad serving all about?
Third-party ad serving involves when you visit a website. A website might have its own content but the ads come from a different server or site.
Third-party ad servers are important for businesses with limited technical skills. This is more so in case of small business’ owners. Small business owners have a limited amount of capital as well as technology they put into practice at the businesses as well as their own skills. Unless the business owner is expertise, it is difficult to manage the various aspects of ad server.
In simple, if the owners of the business do not have the technical or financial competency to do the job themselves then a sensible proposition would be to go for third-party ad servers.
How do third-party servers work?
A third-party advertiser does the function of an ad server in general. However, by such an ad server advertisers can monitor how the ads performance. Banners ads, paid search list ads are some examples of third-party ad server technology. In case of third-party severs, the content is from your site and the ads come from the server. Here the browser gets instruction from the website to collect user information from diverse websites.
How third-party ad servers are useful?
These ad severs program your ads according to your business’ requests. They can help you to know how often the ad has been served, the number of clicks occurred, and most important of all – conversion generated from the ad.
How cookies help?
It works like this: the cookies put a cap on the frequency of the ad getting displayed. This is useful when a visitor is busy looking at the content, a high number of ads might come up which may make the visitor frustrated. The cookies in the site makes sure that such ads come up only once.
Thus, third party ad servers are very important for small business to promote themselves and establish valuable contacts.
In today’s tough competitive business world, it is important for your business to stay live online. Users are increasingly purchasing/researching/evaluating products/services by visiting relevant website. By this, purchasing products or services has become easier. Consumers are increasingly finding it convenient to purchase online.
Under these circumstances, it is important for businesses to make sure that their websites are up. In other word, business owners have to make their website available for users at any time. This post emphasizes the importance of monitoring your business website.
To keep business functioning and profitable
Monitoring your website prevents from unwanted hackers thereby improving site performance.
Hackers harm your website by damaging the uptime. How do they do it? Well, they might do it by incorporating in your website malicious code, as a result your site is down. A website monitor can help you by letting your site administrators know when your site is down and act fast, so that there is minimal loss of business.
When visitors find your website loading fast, withing one or two seconds, it is likely that they get curious and go into the site further. It helps you in keeping them engaged in your site.
In other words, if your website is taking less time to load, then the visitors will stay on your website rather than going to your competitors site.
Preventing loss in sales
If your business website is monitored properly, and if any issue arises it will be reported to you immediately. You can look into the matter and get it solved. This will prevent loss in sales.
If your site is down many a times, your customers might find it difficult to purchase your product/service. You will not only lose potential customers, but it could do damage to the companies brand.
Obtain best search results ranking
Search engines look for your site’s uptime. That is, they check if your site was down at any moment and how often it goes down. Website’s uptime is an important criterion while ranking it.
Search engines such as Google take the loading speed of your site as one of the criteria for ranking sites. This is because, if your site is not loading fast, Google perceives it as one of the factors that badly affects user experience.
Detecting hackers fast
Detecting hackers fast is important because they cause loss of valuable customers by making the site down. They bring trouble to the site by technically making some changes in the operation of the website.
Having a website monitor is likely to keep you abreast of your website’s performance. They will let you know the site’s down time via email, SMS text messages and/or voice messages. This helps your site’s administrator to take remedial measures immediately.
Digital marketing is a strategy used by many businesses to communicate with their prospective customers and make them aware and knowledgeable about their products/services. It is used as a powerful marketing tool in various ways to promote business and reach people across the globe.
Digital marketing is part of a strategy to attract target customers. Digital marketing is performed in different forms. These are effective in creating the desired outcome, ans are cost effective. Here are some of the effective types of digital marketing.
It is a graphical advertisement displayed on other websites or blogs to boost traffic. These graphical advertisements are banners, and can include text, images, audio, video or interactive content.
Display advertising increases product and brand awareness, and helps you reach your marketing goal. In this type of marketing, you also get to know the number of people that have clicked on your ad and what they did on your site.
In affiliate marketing, the website owner makes money for helping businesses by promoting their website, product or service, on their own website. It is a type of marketing by a third party that refers customers to the merchant’s website, either to help the merchant sell their products/services, or to send prospective customers to the merchant’s website. This type of marketing will give more exposure to the merchant’s products/services.
E-mail marketing is a process that distributes messages to customers via e-mail. It is an advertisement of a product, service, or a brand. It can either consist of a text message, a combination of words and images, or a video.
To start the process, first the customer should sign up for an e-mail publication to get reminded through e-mail about new products, launches, and other deals being offered by your business.
Search engine marketing (SEM)
SEM has two methods of gaining traffic to a website, one is SEO (search engine optimization) which is through organic and free traffic, and the other is PPC (Pay Per Click), which is a paid advertisement, you can see the sponsored ads at the top of the search results page. The aim of SEM is to provide better search results and send a more targeted traffic to your website.
Social Media Marketing (SMM)
Promoting a website through SMM involves using social media networks like Facebook, Twitter, Google+, LinkedIn and so on. In SMM, businesses can connect with their customers to spread awareness about their company, its products/services. Today, it is one of the most popular marketing strategies. Businesses are increasingly using social media networks to interact with customers, investors, employees, vendors and prospects.
In addition, there are many other types such as mobile marketing, inbound marketing, content marketing, keyword marketing, video marketing, article marketing, etc., which can be used to attract users to your website and your business.
If you are a website owner, like most entrepreneurs you should be keeping an eye on the hosting provider to check if they are holding up to their promises or are they being easy on the website up-time. When considering an hosting provider, we will be impressed by looking at their promises such as 99.9% up-time, unlimited hosting etc, but we don’t realize the limitations associated with it which they don’t mention unless we ask them. Choosing the provider and a right hosting plan is a challenging task for many website owners, especially if they are doing it for the first time. The task has currently become even more complicated as there are numerous providers in the market with different hosting plans. Here, let us discuss some common mistakes that people often do while choosing a web host service :
Choose Cheap or Free Hosting Plans
While free services saves you few bucks on hosting plan, remember no service is offered free unless there is a benefit in it. Accepting free or cheap services is more or less equal to putting your business at risk because the site will not perform as you expected. Even if you come across slow loading speeds or frequent unexpected downtimes, you cannot question the provider because the service is a cheap deal. Since these hosting plans are designed to have low features, they will not be able to scale your website services as your business grows. In addition to that, your site will be used to display third party ads at no cost which means you are losing your brand value and promoting others through your website. You may not face all these complications at one time but gradually they will pop-up one-by-one making us feel bad for choosing the wrong company. If there any budget constraints on hosting plans, think about choosing a standard reasonable service rather than going for free or cheap hosting.
Do not check the company background
With a little bit of effort you can easily find one or two hosting packages that may sound reasonable for your website needs. However, figuring out whether these companies that you have selected are reliable or not requires some detailed research on reviews & complaints. It is a good idea to acquire the complete knowledge of each provider and compare them so that the website will not face any major risks in future. While looking out for negative reviews check if there are any service complaints, downtime issues or security breaches. If the reviews are overly hyped that is not a good thing, either. So until you find a good provider who can customize the features matching your business needs, keep searching for various options online.
Do not read through the terms and conditions properly
Most of the people just browse the highlighted points in Terms of service and generally ignore going through each sentence because they think it is not that important to read. There are many things that are important to be noted from customers point of view such as cancellation procedure and refund policy etc which comes handy when moving to new hosting provider. The agreement not only contains the up time percentage rate but also includes the refund amount that the company is going to pay if any losses are incurred due to unplanned downtimes. So before finalizing the hosting service and signing the paper work, take a few minutes to read through the terms and conditions thoroughly to avoid future confusion.
In today’s information age, it is not a good idea to overlook website performance as it has direct impact on the business revenues. Most of the internet users expect the website pages to load within first one or two seconds and if the response is delayed even for a fraction of second, they will just move to another competitor’s site. In fact, many online shoppers who are not happy with the website response are less likely to visit the same website again, no matter how tempting the bargain could be. Yet, webmasters don’t realize the importance of performance and stuff their websites with complex designs and functionality which delay and impact the response times.
There are many factors that affect the website performance but lets us discuss few of them that are important:
- Complicated functional design
- Technical dependencies
Website performance also depends on factors like server connectivity, protocols, existing computer resources etc. Sometimes, even the optimized websites experience downtime due to defective servers from the hosting plan, high volume to the websites, and the usage of outdated software. By timely monitoring the uptime at regular intervals there is a possibility that you can control the performance issues and website downtime disasters.
- Scaling up for higher demands
Number of hits or high traffic is a good sign for business websites because more number of people accessing the website means higher conversions and more business profits. But imagine what happens if high volume of users try to access single website at the same time. This happens mainly for the e-commerce websites during peak hours when huge sale is going on. As the number of requests to access the website increases, the server slows down and eventually the website performance becomes very slow. It even results in server crash making the website unavailable to the users. The reason could be the limited bandwidth because most of the websites are hosted with certain bandwidth limit and any excess downloads may result in low website performance.
- website monitoring service
Anticipating what went wrong with the website is not an easy task as it could be anything – delayed network, caching problem or even a database error. Hence, it is always better to have a good service provider for website monitoring who can track the working of your websites, analyze the reason if there are any failures and alert you promptly through phone or SMS in case of performance issues. Keeping track of your website and monitoring its performance ensures continuous availability of your website without unexpected downtime, and fast retrieval of pages at consistent speed giving a smooth internet experience to the visitors.
The mechanical systems usually decrease its performance after a period of time. Hence, the systems are to be optimized in order to get maximum output from them. The optimization of the fans utilizes different kinds of steps like using series of fans on the shafts or using multiple shafts with series of fans.
Multiple fans in series or parallel
- Fans are combined in series or in parallel as an alternative to a single set of fan.
- A set of two smaller fans are less expensive than a single set of larger fan and they give better performance than the larger one.
- The operation and arrangement of this kind requires a special care and special operating arrangements.
- Fans are to be installed in series close to each other to increase pressure locally.
- Parallel arrangement is done for single or dual operation for varying air flow rate.
- Series and parallel arrangement has its own advantage.
- Series arrangement is preferable in systems, having long duct or large pressure drops.
- In draft systems either induced draft or forced draft, the fans in series will minimize the amount of pressure in the duct.
- In parallel arrangement high efficiencies are achieved in system air flow rate,
- In parallel arrangement lower noise is generated.
- Parallel configurations are feasible for systems with large changes in air moving requirements.
Better matching of fans with the system
- The fans are selected to match the maximum pressure and flow requirements of the system.
- The system may not require the operation at maximum conditions all the time.
- The motor selected for a drive system must be capable of supplying the fan with required driving power.
- The fans in the system are usually driven by alternative current.
- The motor selected for driving the fans is usually a squirrel cage induction motor, because of its durability, low cost, reliability and less maintenance.
- These motors provide 3600 RPM when used a 2 pole 60 Hertz system and 1800 RPM when used a 4 pole 60 Hertz system.
- When there is a need of continuous range of speed variation, variable frequency drives are used to effectively vary the speed of the motor.
- In some cases when loading on motors is not high, the predicted savings from varying frequency drives may not materialize because of the impact of the losses associated with variable drives.
- Care must be taken in situations where increased air flow rate or system pressure due to clogging of air filters causes an overload on the system motor.
There are some optimization steps that needs to be followed to increase the performance like control of inlet vanes, use of multiple speed motors for driving fans etc.
Industrial fans find their applications in many industries. The main purpose of the industrial fans is to maintain the flow of fluid in the industry. Some industries use industrial fans for material handling too. Centrifugal fan is mostly used in material handling applications because of their high pressure capability.
Main purpose of installing industrial fans is:
- Centrifugal fans find more demand in dedusting process. From small fume exhaust installations to heavy duty applications, centrifugal fans have wide applications in dedusting process. Dedusting an industry requires broad variety of fans.
- Dedusting acts as a pressure type system where dust particles are moved through the fan.
- It also acts as depression type system, where particles are eliminated through a simple kiln with fan placed on top of cyclone.
- In Dedusting process, industrial fans are used along with filters containing segments inside it to remove airborne particles.
- Chemical industry
- Heavy duty fans are used in chemical industry to exhaust corrosive, high temperature or hazardous gasses from the process.
- Fans located in chemical industry must meet the norms and optimum safety of the industry.
- Fans must be constructed with an anti-spark design having material coated with epoxy paint to meet safety.
- Agriculture applications involve ventilation of livestock to maintain livelihood of poultry by supplying fresh air and removal of dust particles. In poultry applications an axial fan is used.
- In case of draining of grains, centrifugal fans are used. In soil applications, high to medium volume centrifugal fans are used.
- Boilers and ovens
- In boiler industry fans are used to supply required amount of fresh air into boiler to maintain optimum level of oxygen for complete combustion of gas or fuel.
- Inlet guide vanes are applied to control the rate of pressure, based on the temperature requirements.
- Industrial boilers serve their purpose in oven applications such as in glass industry and metal industry.
- In oven industries re-circulating fans are used to maintain uniform temperatures. Large centrifugal fans are used to cool the walls of the oven.
- Wood and paper
- Wood and paper industry use axial fans for drying the material in their manufacturing units. In wood industry axial fans are used to dry wood before it is transformed.
- Paper is run continuously on the rolls at a speed which depends on the quality and type of paper to be produced. Fans are used to dry the paper either by exhausting air creating a depression under paper paste or passing the paper paste or pulp through an oven where it is subjected to high temperature for drying.
- In cement industry fans play important role. There are different fans used in cement industry that serve their purpose.
- Raw mill fans
- Exhaust fans or re-circulation fans
- Kiln ID fans
- Coal mill exhaust fans
- Primary air fans
- Clicker cooler fans
- In cement industry heavy duty fans are used because the operating conditions are very high.
- In cement industry fans play important role. There are different fans used in cement industry that serve their purpose.
- In steel industry fans play major role, in grinding the materials, de-dusting the oven and in gas exhaust systems etc.
- In steel industry fans are subjected to condition such as
- high temperature
- high dusty air extraction
- anti-fatigue designs
It is very important to have fans in every industry. An industry may have multiple number of fans installed in its work place based on the requirement.
An industrial fan is a turning machine that transmits energy to the fluid (mostly gaseous fluids) by increasing pressure. Industrial fans are classified into two main categories based on the direction of flow of fluid along the direction of vanes or blades of a fan. If the flow is along the direction of radius of vanes, they are called as centrifugal fans. Similarly if the direction of fluid flow is along the direction of axis of vanes then they are called as axial fans. These two types of industrial fans are again categorized into different types.
There are three types of axial fans. They are
- In this type of axial fan two or more single thickness blades are present on the wheel. These fans are low efficient and are generally used in low pressure applications.
- As the pressure produced is low, the amount of volume generated is high for this type and they are used in high volume air moving applications such as air circulation or in a ventilation trough.
- Tube axial is similar to propeller type axial fan, but contains more number of blades on the wheel which increases efficiency and pressure rate of the system.
- These type of axial fans are used in applications where downstream air distribution is not critical. Some industrial applications are drying ovens, paint spray booths and fume exhausts.
- Vane-axial fans use straight vanes to improve efficiency and pressure capability. They usually have airfoil shapes. Pressure rates are from medium to high.
- Used in industrial application where a uniform downstream air distribution is required.
There are six types of centrifugal fans. They are
- Forward curved
- In forward curved type small blades are curved in direction of wheel rotation. The velocity of the fans are relatively less. The wheel type used in this fan is often called as squirrel cage wheel.
- As it produces less pressure, they are used in low pressure applications like domestic furnaces, central station units and packaged air conditioning etc.
- Radial blade
- In radial blade type the blades are perpendicular to the direction of wheel rotation. The wheel is a paddle type wheel which may or may not contain side rims. Produces low pressure and moves relatively a higher mass or volume of fluid.
- Radial blade type find its usage in material handling applications and some moderate pressure industrial applications.
- Backward inclined
- In backward inclined type the blades are flat and move away from the direction of wheel rotation. It produces relatively high speed to move a given amount of air. It is found to be more efficient than the previous type of centrifugal fans.
- As the amount of pressure produced is high, they are used in applications like heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems.
- Airfoil blade
- Airfoil blade is an improvement for backward inclined wheel design. It produces highest amount of efficiency and runs at a slightly higher speed than the backward inclined.
- They are used in HVAC systems and to clean industrial application where energy savings are important.
- Radial tip
- The blades of radial tip are cupped in the direction of the wheel rotation. It has the same velocity as that of a backward inclined wheel to move given mass or volume of air.
- They are used in material handling and unclean applications and is more efficient than the radial blade.
- Inline centrifugal
- This type contains airfoil with backward inclined wheel in a tube-axial casing. The efficiency of this type is less than radial inclined type.
- Used in low pressure return air systems of heating and ventilating. It has a straight through flow of air. It is a combination of a centrifugal and axial type fan.
The amount of air flow and the efficiency of the fan decides the type of fan to be used in an industry. Sometimes a combination of centrifugal fan and axial fan can be used in industrial applications.
Labor rights for women contributes to underlying policy aim of providing reduction in structural poverty by improving gender equality and women empowerment. These rights helps to promote economic self reliance.
Today women make up to 50 % of the work force and around 46.9% of the technical and professional work force. Women are legally designated to equal employment opportunities and as work force members they should be aware of their rights.
Following are few laws that are important for a women to know in order to understand their rights under these laws.
The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA): This act is mainly designed to help women balance the demands at the work place with personal and family needs. Through this act employers must grant unpaid leave of 12 weeks for women employees for adoption or birth of child.
The Whistle blower Protection Act: This act applied to women who are victims of gender vengeance or discrimination. This act allows the whistle blower(person who reports to authorities about unsafe or inappropriate work conditions taking place in organization) to file a litigation in a federal court.
The Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA): Previously high paying jobs would be offered to men and for accomplishing the same job women would be paid less almost half of what men get. This act enforces over time pay and equal wages for women.
The Civil Rights Act: This act protect women from sexual discrimination. According to this act it is unlawful for an employer to differentiate against women employees because of color, origin, Religion, gender and race.
The Pregnancy Discrimination Act: Pregnancy discrimination act came in to existence after improving the civil rights act to prevent sex differentiation on the basis of pregnancy. Pregnancy discrimination involves treating the women employee unfavorable on the basis id child birth , pregnancy or other related medical conditions. It is an effort made to eliminate the pregnancy based discrimination.
The Comprehensive Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (COBRA): Under this act, working woman employees continue to get health benefits after their job loss because of family issues or job transition. Hence women especially single mothers are the one who benefit from this act.
The Equal Pay Act: This act compensates the fair labor standards act and nullify wage distinction based on sex. It requires that both women and men should be given equal pay for equal work. This makes an important step for women and closing the wage gap between women and men in the work place.
As a women employee one should be aware of the various labor laws that govern equal compensation and pay an their effect on your employment responsibilities and activities.
Due to the absence of fluoride in bottled water they affect the oral health and leads to dental decay. Thus by drinking bottled water, risk of dental cavities increases. Following article gives idea about the importance of fluoride and the affects caused by its absence in bottle water
Role of fluoride for healthy tooth
- Fluoride is a mineral which protects people from dental decay or tooth decay.
- It gets incorporated in to the teeth as they develop and make them resistant to decay which is essential for the development of adult teeth in children.
- It remineralizes the tooth surface by making the enamel strong and prevent cavities from forming.
- Fluoride is used for reversing the progression of cavities and prevent the need of dental treatments for restoration such as fillings.
- Water fluoridation is a cost effective measure available for reducing the incidence of tooth decay.
- Environmental protection agency (EPA) `determined that the concentration for fluorine in tap water should approximate to 0.7- 1.2 parts per million.
- Companies which make bottled water and filtration systems present in home either use reverse osmosis techniques or distillation unit for removing the impurities and sediments present in the water.
- Reverse osmosis is a process where it filters out some chemicals and minerals while distillation is the process which uses heat to steam the water from the impurities present in it.
- Finally the steam which is obtained is converted back to water and bottled for use.
- As of American dental association water should contain about 0.7-1.2 mg per liter of fluoride fro cavity protection but due tot he above process only 0.3 mg per liter of fluoride is present where an average man need 4 mg of fluoride per day.
Diets which add up fluoride to your body
- Commercially made foods and other beverages that are fluoride protected can be taken.
- Tooth pastes having fluoride and applied gels helps in strengthen the teeth by hardening the enamel surface.
- Dietary supplements having fluoride in forms like tablets, lozenges are made available only by prescription to children aged from 6 months to 16 years.
Drinking fluoride free bottled water increases the risk of dental cavities. Hence, one should be aware of the importance of fluoride to teeth which is commonly absent in bottled water and so the above data helps in understanding the affects of bottled water on your teeth.
Lasers have been used in dentistry since 1994 to treat a number of dental problems. These lasers are different from the cold lasers used in phototherapy for the relief of headaches, pain, and inflammation. Electrically Accelerated and Enhanced Re mineralization (EAER) deals with a small electrical current allowing calcium and phosphate to remineralize the tooth thus protecting from decay. Use of a low intensity laser can regrow dentin and reverse tooth decay. The light from the laser activates a chemical in the mouth which stimulates stem cells and act as a repair system for the body deep within teeth.
Traditional process to treat tooth decay
In traditional method dentists will drill into the decayed area and remove the unhealthy material from it. A drill basically grinds away everything in its path. And it sets up heat, friction and vibration that effect the nerve. After removing the decay and cleaning the area, the tooth colored material is applied in layers which is followed by exposing to a special light that hardens each layer applied. When the multilayer process is completed the shaping of the composite material to the desired result by trimming off any excess material and then polish the final restoration.
Working of laser in treating tooth decay
A laser works specifically only on the diseased part of the tooth. Decayed tooth has high water content compared to healthy tooth. Hence laser selectively targets to vaporize only the decay area. It doesn’t effect the nerve of the tooth.
- They cause less pain in cases where the usage of anesthesia is reduced.
- Lasers also reduce anxiety in patients who are uncomfortable with the use of dental drill.
- They minimize selling during soft tissue treatments.
- They enable to preserve more of the healthy tooth during cavity removal.
- Lasers enable to regenerate bone and ligament tissue.
- They eliminate bleeding of the gums immediately.
The disadvantages of lasers are that:
- Lasers can’t be used on teeth with fillings already in place.
- Lasers can’t be used to fill cavities located between teeth, around old fillings, and large cavities that need to be prepared for a crown.
- Lasers cannot be used to remove defective crowns or silver fillings, or prepare teeth for bridges.
- Traditional drills may still be needed to shape the filling, adjust the bite, and polish the filling even when a laser is used.
- Lasers do not eliminate the need for anesthesia.
- Laser treatment tends to be more expensive the cost of the laser is much higher than a dental drill.
Despite the drawbacks of taking a laser treatment it is quite effective and useful for treatment. .It is believed that present diets are expediting tooth decay as acidic foods and drinks like citrus and soda erode enamel. Increased amounts of carbohydrates and refined sugars have also been identified as a cause leaving people more prone to developing decay.
A web page acts as a file similar to the word processing documents which require computer to store them all web pages also need a computer for storing them. The only difference is that web pages will be enabled to be seen by the public. For making the web pages seen by everyone which are stored in the computer should be of higher specification than a general desktop and have to be connected through a powerful link to the internet.
A computer in which all the web pages are stored is called web server because of that it serves pages to users on internet on request. a stack of web pages makes a web site and a collection of web pages present widely form the world wide web (WWW).
Now comes the job of making these web pages and web sites and making it available widely to the users which is called web hosting. hosting the web sites over internet by providing certain space is called web space which is usually measured in mega bytes similar to the space measured on your computer.
Need for web hosting
- Though it is possible technically to connect MAC or PC to the internet and access the server pages it is not efficient with a home based internet connection as it is not dynamic enough for serving multiple users at the same time.
- Hence for this reason web companies exist maintaining effective web servers storing web pages. Web hosting companies connect these web servers through powerful connections thus enabling users to access the web pages at same time.
- In order to put a website under operational run one need s a web host until and unless one have unlimited funds one cannot manage the web servers and the necessary connections.
- Web hosting companies not only provides web space but other services which may vary from one company to other.
- Domain name registration, email provision and also technical support either through email, web sites or telephone.
Based on the below mentioned factors web hosting will be differentiated in to different packages:
- Amount of web space
- Data transfer ability or band width
- Number of email addresses
- Operating system (UNIX or windows)
- Band width overage
Importance of web hosting for web sites
- After successful creation of website and obtaining a domain name it has to be sent for hosting.
- A web hosting company provides space over the server where all the files and web pages are kept thus enabling it for the users to access on the internet.
- The web server taken in by the web hosting company will be always kept switched on and connected to the internet all times so that it can be accessed through out.
- Various reasons makes the web site inaccessible by creating some problem to the server.
- By giving the domain name in the browser computers use different systems for finding out the appropriate server thus bringing up the pages related to your web site and opens on their system.
A fundamental understanding of the way things work and the need for hosting the websites is important before going for creation of web site. The above article gives a brief about the basics and helps in making things clear for you.
Impacted wisdom tooth are the third molars at the back of the mouth that do not have enough space to develop or emerge normally. They result in damage to other teeth, pain and other dental problems. In few cases these teeth may not cause any apparent problems but they are hard to clean and are more vulnerable to gum disease and tooth decay compared to other teeth.
Causes: The main causes for impacted tooth are as follows:
- Wisdom tooth becomes impacted when they do not have enough space to develop normally.
- An impacted wisdom tooth may partially emerge where the crown will be visible (partially impacted) or it never break through the gums (fully impacted).
- A partially impacted tooth can trap plaque, food and other debris in the soft tissue present around it which can lead to tenderness of gums, inflammation and unpleasant mouth odor.
- The retained plaque, debris may lead to the decay of neighboring tooth or wisdom tooth.
- Impacted tooth pushes on next tooth which in turn pushes the next tooth eventually causing misalignment of the bite.
Symptoms: Impacted-wisdom-tooth when infected and damages other teeth show certain signs and symptoms such as:
- Bad breath
- Prolonged jaw ache or head ache
- Tenderness or pain of the jaw bone or gums
- Difficulty in opening the mouth
- Swelling or redness of the gums around the impacted tooth
- Swollen lymph nodes of the neck (seen occasionally) etc.
- Formation of cysts: Wisdom tooth develops in a sac within the jawbone. This sac can fill with fluid thus forming a cyst that can damage the nerves, jawbone and teeth. This complication requires the removal of bone and tissue.
- Gum disease: The difficulty in cleaning the partially emerged wisdom tooth increases the risk of developing inflammatory, painful gum condition called pericoronitis in that area.
- Damage to neighboring teeth: In case where the wisdom tooth pushes the second molars it may damage or increase the risk of infection in that particular area. The pressure developed can also cause complications with crowding of the other teeth or may require orthodontic treatment for straightening other teeth.
- Tooth decay: Partially impacted teeth will be more prone to tooth decay than other teeth.
- No treatment is needed if the impacted tooth is not causing any problems.
- Pain relievers helps if the impacted tooth causes any discomfort.
- Extracting one’s tooth is one treatment if the impacted tooth cause pain or infects/ interferes with the neighboring teeth.
- Before removing the tooth, the patient will be made understand regarding the sedatives and anesthetics that will be used by the dentist or surgeon.
- The patient is recommended not to eat at least 6 hours before surgery.
- After the surgical treatment the patient may have swelling of jaw and cheeks.