Labor laws are very important for developing the relationships between the individuals and the organizations. So, the government has divided this law in to two types one is individual laws and the other is collective laws and this laws will show the rules and regulations of each individuals and their organizations. So, would you like to know the differences between the both. Then, read this article. If you are a business owner or an employee of an organization, this article will help you.
As said the labor laws are divided in to two categories one is collective and the other is individual. See the below information for details.
Collective labor laws
Collective labor laws will set the relation between the employee, employer and the unions. The trade unions contains some rules that are to be followed and they are listed below:
- Trade unions: Trade unions are group of members formed for collective bargaining with their employers. This unions will help in promoting the interests of their union members. This unions of some countries required certain procedures to be followed before they take any action to pursuit their goals. Traded unions will have the following:
- Strike: This laws indicate or shows, when the strikes are legal and when they are not legal.
- Picketing: Picketing is a common tactic used to show the presence of strikers during strikes. This has many legal guidelines that are to be followed by the strikers or the member’s of the trade union.
- Workplace involvement: It involves the coordination of the employers with their employees or the workers to discuss on any issue that arise within the company or organization.
Individual labor laws
This mainly refers to the rights that employees have at their workplace. They include the employment contract between the employer and the employee, minimum wage, working hours, dismissal, discrimination, health and safety etc. Here, the employer should look at the benefits of each individual employee in their organization. These laws are applied for each individual. This laws vary in states, countries and also according to the type of business.
Both the laws should be implemented to protect the rights of employers and employees in the work environment and these are general labor laws that are applicable for all the employees and the organizations. So, before you start a business it is better to consult a attorney to discuss all the legal issues regarding your business and also about the laws that are to be implemented in the workplace as per your state or country.
Uptime is a one of the important factors for a website to gain credibility among the visitors. In general, uptime is the time in which the website is up, running and available to the visitors or the clients. Any changes in the uptime leads to the downtime of the website. Therefore, to keep your site up, you need to monitor it with the help of the uptime monitoring services. Some of the services that are used for checking the uptime of the website are:
This pings your website to make sure that your website is up and running. Ping monitoring senses the missing connection that leads to downtime of the website and notifies you. Along with this, it also provides information regarding Internet connection speed and downtime statistics. Here, the internet connection speed is important as slow websites are not better when compared to down sites. However, this is not good for monitoring websites as it responses to the ping requests even if the website is down.
DNS server monitoring
The DNS server is able to provide in-depth information regarding the up-time by translating the online address into the numerical address with the help of a DNS protocol. This also provides information with respect to protocol failures, network outages, etc. The important point to be noted here is during the translation if the online address doesn’t match with the numerical address, DNS will sense it and reports the error showing it as hacked.
HTTP is used for transferring the data online, with some set of rules telling the server and web browser what information to exchange and also HTTP requests tests whether there is HTTP response from the web server. Due to this continuous transfer of information HTTP provides data about the HTTP traffic. Advanced monitoring gives the additional information about the SSL certificates.
TCP connection will allow the arbitrary services to be tested. Here, the TCP port monitoring will transfer the data between the network devices using the strategy of retransmission. It becomes clear quickly because of its quality monitoring and helps in host to host communications. If the TCP port fails, the monitor will alert the users regarding the faulty transmission.
To make your website stay alive, you need to monitor the uptime of a website consistently as part of website monitoring. This should be done either by the web hosting provider or by the website owner hosting the site. Regular uptime monitoring at multiple points keeps your business safe.
Digital marketing is a strategy used by many businesses to communicate with their prospective customers and make them aware and knowledgeable about their products/services. It is used as a powerful marketing tool in various ways to promote business and reach people across the globe.
Digital marketing is part of a strategy to attract target customers. Digital marketing is performed in different forms. These are effective in creating the desired outcome, ans are cost effective. Here are some of the effective types of digital marketing.
It is a graphical advertisement displayed on other websites or blogs to boost traffic. These graphical advertisements are banners, and can include text, images, audio, video or interactive content.
Display advertising increases product and brand awareness, and helps you reach your marketing goal. In this type of marketing, you also get to know the number of people that have clicked on your ad and what they did on your site.
In affiliate marketing, the website owner makes money for helping businesses by promoting their website, product or service, on their own website. It is a type of marketing by a third party that refers customers to the merchant’s website, either to help the merchant sell their products/services, or to send prospective customers to the merchant’s website. This type of marketing will give more exposure to the merchant’s products/services.
E-mail marketing is a process that distributes messages to customers via e-mail. It is an advertisement of a product, service, or a brand. It can either consist of a text message, a combination of words and images, or a video.
To start the process, first the customer should sign up for an e-mail publication to get reminded through e-mail about new products, launches, and other deals being offered by your business.
Search engine marketing (SEM)
SEM has two methods of gaining traffic to a website, one is SEO (search engine optimization) which is through organic and free traffic, and the other is PPC (Pay Per Click), which is a paid advertisement, you can see the sponsored ads at the top of the search results page. The aim of SEM is to provide better search results and send a more targeted traffic to your website.
Social Media Marketing (SMM)
Promoting a website through SMM involves using social media networks like Facebook, Twitter, Google+, LinkedIn and so on. In SMM, businesses can connect with their customers to spread awareness about their company, its products/services. Today, it is one of the most popular marketing strategies. Businesses are increasingly using social media networks to interact with customers, investors, employees, vendors and prospects.
In addition, there are many other types such as mobile marketing, inbound marketing, content marketing, keyword marketing, video marketing, article marketing, etc., which can be used to attract users to your website and your business.
In today’s tough competitive business world, it is important for your business to stay live online. Users are increasingly purchasing/researching/evaluating products/services by visiting relevant website. By this, purchasing products or services has become easier. Consumers are increasingly finding it convenient to purchase online.
Under these circumstances, it is important for businesses to make sure that their websites are up. In other word, business owners have to make their website available for users at any time. This post emphasizes the importance of monitoring your business website.
To keep business functioning and profitable
Monitoring your website prevents from unwanted hackers thereby improving site performance.
Hackers harm your website by damaging the uptime. How do they do it? Well, they might do it by incorporating in your website malicious code, as a result your site is down. A website monitor can help you by letting your site administrators know when your site is down and act fast, so that there is minimal loss of business.
When visitors find your website loading fast, withing one or two seconds, it is likely that they get curious and go into the site further. It helps you in keeping them engaged in your site.
In other words, if your website is taking less time to load, then the visitors will stay on your website rather than going to your competitors site.
Preventing loss in sales
If your business website is monitored properly, and if any issue arises it will be reported to you immediately. You can look into the matter and get it solved. This will prevent loss in sales.
If your site is down many a times, your customers might find it difficult to purchase your product/service. You will not only lose potential customers, but it could do damage to the companies brand.
Obtain best search results ranking
Search engines look for your site’s uptime. That is, they check if your site was down at any moment and how often it goes down. Website’s uptime is an important criterion while ranking it.
Search engines such as Google take the loading speed of your site as one of the criteria for ranking sites. This is because, if your site is not loading fast, Google perceives it as one of the factors that badly affects user experience.
Detecting hackers fast
Detecting hackers fast is important because they cause loss of valuable customers by making the site down. They bring trouble to the site by technically making some changes in the operation of the website.
Having a website monitor is likely to keep you abreast of your website’s performance. They will let you know the site’s down time via email, SMS text messages and/or voice messages. This helps your site’s administrator to take remedial measures immediately.
Ad servers are an important evolution in web technology. Ad servers have made the job of publishing, placing, targeting and timing of ads pretty easy these days. However, for a new business, an important question is whether they should go for third-party ad servers or they should have their own servers. This article seeks to offer a clarity in this regard.
What is third-party ad serving all about?
Third-party ad serving involves when you visit a website. A website might have its own content but the ads come from a different server or site.
Third-party ad servers are important for businesses with limited technical skills. This is more so in case of small business’ owners. Small business owners have a limited amount of capital as well as technology they put into practice at the businesses as well as their own skills. Unless the business owner is expertise, it is difficult to manage the various aspects of ad server.
In simple, if the owners of the business do not have the technical or financial competency to do the job themselves then a sensible proposition would be to go for third-party ad servers.
How do third-party servers work?
A third-party advertiser does the function of an ad server in general. However, by such an ad server advertisers can monitor how the ads performance. Banners ads, paid search list ads are some examples of third-party ad server technology. In case of third-party severs, the content is from your site and the ads come from the server. Here the browser gets instruction from the website to collect user information from diverse websites.
How third-party ad servers are useful?
These ad severs program your ads according to your business’ requests. They can help you to know how often the ad has been served, the number of clicks occurred, and most important of all – conversion generated from the ad.
How cookies help?
It works like this: the cookies put a cap on the frequency of the ad getting displayed. This is useful when a visitor is busy looking at the content, a high number of ads might come up which may make the visitor frustrated. The cookies in the site makes sure that such ads come up only once.
Thus, third party ad servers are very important for small business to promote themselves and establish valuable contacts.
What is a PCB?
The acronym PCB stands for Printed Circuit Board. PCBs are a versatile and very critical part of an electronic circuit, they are the crucial part in an electronic equipment.
PCBs are basically no other than electronic circuits designed in a beautiful way on an insulating substrate. Apart from the aesthetic appearance, they also bring other benefits like more complex circuiting, easy component placement and better trouble shooting capabilities. The conducting links consist of etched or deposited conducting tracks unlike traditional wire connections.
PCBs have evolved over the years and there are many types of them used in the industry. Their suitability is a function of the application, size and the working environment it has to be used.
An early PCB
The first formal PCB came into effect was a PCB circuit for radio developed by Dr. Paul Eisler. Though the PCB didn’t achieve the deserved recognition in the earlier stages, it only gained importance during the World War II.
The earlier PCB manufacturing techniques were mainly based on neat circuiting for reliability and durability but the reduction in size came as an added advantage. The manufacturing process were mainly based on chemical acid etching method and turret boards.
Today’s approaches to PCB manufacturing are far superior than the earlier techniques with more merits like size reduction, working environment suitability and extensive enhancement in data transfer capabilities.
In simple applications, single and double sided PCB boards are used. Single sided PCBs are conductively etched on one surface and the other surface is used for soldering the legs of the components to be mounted on the circuit. In double sided PCB boards, the other side is also etched or left fully cladded to allow it to be used for signal source or ground common.
The more advanced multilayer PCB were used for massive size reduction and added features in a lesser space. The multilayer PCB consisted of multiple layers of designed circuit boards sandwiched together with the help of a non conducting laminating material in between.
With technological advancement, the PCB has not lagged behind. To keep in pace with the industry, software applications for circuit designing were invented. With this, the 2D and 2.5D trend in the PCB manufacturing started booming giving them an extra edge over their earlier counterparts. They have reduced dimensions, more features and better data transfer capabilities. With latest tools available, the track resolution as small as a few 1000th parts of an inch can be achieved.
Significance of PCBs
The significance of PCBs can not be overlooked. It has revolutionized the consumer and industrial electronics. As a result, we can now witness the miniaturization of gadgets and equipment within a short span of time. They come now loaded with extra features at the same time. The mass production of the PCB has reduced the cost of manufacturing and has helped the electronic industry to cater to the need of consumer in a more economical way. As a result, the technology has become cheaper and is easily accessible. It has led to over all development of the living status and the mankind in whole.
The future is likely to see more new applications and innovation. This is likely to happen: with the dimensions getting smaller, more features will get loaded and extremely fast data transfer capabilities. The development of the 3D technology and the quest for new materials are on to meet the needs and expectations of rapidly transforming electronic industry. With the developments expected to be concluded in due time, we can expect to witness healthy and important changes in the years come.
OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Act), this is the Act came into existence in order to ensure safe and healthy working conditions for both working women and men. Under this Act, employee have some rights that are listed below.
Right to have safe and healthy workplace
Under OSHA every employee has the right to have the safe and healthy workplace and here the employer should provide the employees employment as well as the workplace of the employment free from recognized hazards which are are likely to cause or causing serious physical harm to employees or death, if the hazard can’t be removed, then protection must be provided. The safe and healthy workplace means the place that is free of hazards and workers are trained.
Right for training
Employees have the right for getting trained regarding the safety and health hazards and also the standards that an employer must follow. Employees can take the training required about the hazardous communication and apart from that other essential training includes, noise, confined spaces, lockout-tagout, personal protective equipment etc.
Right to information regarding illness and injuries in your workplace
An employer who have more than 10 employees should have a log regarding the work related injuries and illness of the workers that are resulting in the lost working-days, restricted work etc. under the OSHA recordkeeping rule. So, here the employee has the right for reviewing the present log as well as the stored logs past 5 years logs and the employer must provide that in the next workday itself.
Right to file a complaint with OSHA
As an employee of the organization, if you feel that the safety and health standards are violated or if any close danger situation exists in the workplace, you can make a complaint with OSHA in the website through writing or by the telephone to the nearest OSHA office. If you have any doubts regarding the complaints you may also call and know the violation OSHA laws and the process of the complaint.
Right for participating in OSHA inspection
When an OSHA inspection is done in your workplace you have the right to participate in it along with the representative accompanying the inspecting inspector. You also have the right for raising your doubts regarding the hazards or illness and discuss this issues, right for finding the inspection results, you can involve in the meetings related to inspection etc.
Right for hazard exposure and medical records
Employee has the right for examining and copy exposure and also medical records including the records of workplace monitoring or measuring the toxic substance. This helps the employee as it will make them to detect, prevent and treat occupational disease.
These are the major employee rights under OSHA. So, make sure that as an employee you are aware of this rights.
Other employee rights include:
- Right for knowing about the hazardous chemicals
- Right from complaining or requesting hazard correction from employer
- Right for freeing from retaliation for exercising health a safety right
- Responsibilities of workers
Roadside assistance coverage as the name itself suggests is meant for a vehicle, which is covered under this insurance i.e., when the vehicle incidentally stops on the road because of a problem. In general, people while purchasing the insurance policies ignore this roadside assistance coverage, thinking that they can handle such trivial situations. However, it is a beneficial coverage; and people should be aware of its importance, where they are expected to spend more on roadside issues. It can cover the vehicle insurance in many ways. Some of the benefits or the services that you can get covered under this roadside assistance coverage are listed below.
This is common and generally happens when the vehicle is left with lights on or kept the radio on, all the day. In this situation, you can’t start the car as the battery becomes completely dead leading to situation where you need to take the help of someone. Roadside assistance coverage is helpful to get your car functional, in situations like these. This coverage is especially beneficial in cold weather conditions, where the probability of your vehicle getting stuck increases.
If you lost your car keys completely or if you have ever locked the keys in the car, then it makes you frustrated, especially, if it happens in the night time or if you are in emergency. In such situations, you have to call a professional to help you out to unlock the car door that costs you much. However, if your vehicle is covered under this insurance scheme, you can just call for the assistance and get the car unlocked, without a single penny spent on it within a few minutes.
Sometimes you may not notice that your car tyres are under-inflated. This may lead to the sudden blowouts and completely flat tyre, which causes difficulty in your car moving forward. Then, you can change the tyre and move forward. But, what if there is no spare tyre? This is embarrassing. In this condition, you will think of the roadside assistance coverage that covers you with new tyres and make your drive continue.
Fuel and water delivery
Roadside assistance also serves you, when the fuel or gas in your car is exhausted in the middle of the drive. Someone will bring you to the gas station or fuel under this coverage.
Your car can get into bad condition, making it difficult to move forward. In such a situation, this service would help you. Someone will assist your vehicle to nearby qualified repair facility.
These are a few services that you can get under this roadside assistance insurance. So, why late? Go to the good dealer and get this insurance.
These are a few services that you can get under this roadside assistance insurance.
What is web hosting and how does it work?
Web hosting is involves renting out an amount of server space to store your data online. Here data means all the website information or website files of your website. This service is provided by web hosting service vendors. When visitors are looking for your website in the Internet, it will connect to the particular server based on the domain name. Then, it transfers all the website information files to the users.
If you are looking for web hosting service, you need to know about all these considerations.
Price is an important consideration while you are looking for a web hosting service. Because some company’s offers you even less prices. But they may be not provide other features. But you need to concentrate on quality web host.
Disk space is the storage space for your data. The amount of space for storing data the web host provides you is called disk space. The storage space which offered is varies from one company to other company. The more the disk space offered is, the better it is.
You need to select a web hosting company that offers more bandwidth. Even if you need a less bandwidth today, later in future if your business grows has more traffic, it will need more bandwidth. Therefore, it is better to go for high bandwidth service provider.
In addition, if your website is having more pages like lots of images, videos, etc., you will need higher storage along with greater bandwidth.
When choosing a web hosing service provider, it’s important to check for customer service the service provides. Check for the means of communication: whether customer service uses telephone, email, SMS or voice chart. Make sure check whether customer service responds around the clock all the days of the week.
Some company’s will give a regular backup for your files. Like everyday backup of your website files. It is better to like this kind of options.
Uptime describes how frequently a website hosted by a company goes down and the longer it’s available without being down the more it’s effective. A website may not have 100% uptime, but it should be available for a longtime.
Web hosting service is provided by lots of company’s. So in that to choose one best company is really very difficult. But by considering all the above features you can easily get a good web hosting service.
Before you choose a type of website hosing service and a service provider, it’s logical to take into account your business faces, its financial capabilities. Research thoroughly and decide.
When it comes to work, it becomes very important regarding who is doing what. Work needs to be done according to predetermined set of rules at workplace. People are required to work according to their specialty. Hence, engagement of employees is an art and engaging them suitably leads to lot of work with lot of good quality.
There are people who strive for a quality work and are dedicated towards it. They generally come up with appreciable work. If the work done by such employees is not appreciated and recognized, they may loose interest in work. Performance appraisals keep the employee satisfied and encouraged.
Know your employees and engage accordingly
People across the globes have different skill sets. Similarly, every new employee and the existing employees have certain skill sets. Each of them are really good at somethings, they need to improve when it comes to certain skills and with certain skills, they are very poor. It is responsibility of the HR to examine employees for their skills and interests in order to engage them in suitable work. Every person has some strengths and limitations. They tend to get deviated for certain things and certain things do not bother them. All these contribute to the quality set of an employee.
Knowing all these factors help a HR to employ his employee in the kind of work as per his skill set and qualities. This keeps the zeal alive in the employee to work and keeps up his enthusiasm and interest. This gives work satisfaction to employees. This leads to high quality of output and high productivity also. They hone their skills at work and turn out to be an useful asset to the company.
Performance appraisal leads to work satisfaction and employee retention
There is no scarcity of the people who are willing to work hard. Problems only rises when elements are not there who recognize the hard work and performance and appreciate it. When good quality of work go unnoticed, the employee feels dejected and loses his interest in work. So, it is necessary that performance reviews take place at regular intervals of time and good work is recognized, appreciated and rewarded. This leads to work satisfaction in the employee and keeps the zeal and enthusiasm alive. Such employees remain hardworking and dedicated to the organization for a long time. Additionally, this also serves as an example for other employees who work hard subsequently to achieve similar goals.
So, it is important for a HR to know his employees properly in order to engage them properly and appraise the work of a deserving employee. This leads to a competitive and productive work culture that is highly motivated and committed to the company.
Blogs generally refers to publishing one’s own records, opinions, experiences, advices and evaluations. This trend originally started as a hobby in order to share written works like prose and poetry and later took the form of giving information, evaluations, advices and experiences. These blogs went to become popular with lots of people reading these and commenting and appreciating it, reverting back with their opinions. In this way blogs became a popular platform in order to exchange information and other works and soon these blogging sites began to attract heavy traffic.
High traffic sites are always ideal for promotion work. Hence, blogging became a marketing strategy for promoting the websites. In this way blogging became integrated feature of most of the commercial websites as part of online marketing strategy. It is interesting to know that most of the fortune 500 companies resort to blogging on their websites in order to attract traffic and generate customer confidence.
Blogging helps in creating organic or natural search results. Hence it is a widely regarded SEO technique. Blogging is helpful to business entities in many ways. Some of these ways will be discussed below.
Benefits of blogging for business
When people search for product information, search engines provide them with results. Company websites which have a blog rank better than other websites. Blogs give information to the customers which they can use for getting information of a product, how to choose a product and working of a product. These things are aimed at helping a prospective customer to make a choice. These things help in creating goodwill in the customer community and builds brand preference and confidence in them. Such people tend to make a purchase and associate with a brand for longer term.
Blogging is a sure thing that exposes the brand and products to a variety of customers over the globe. Blogging helps in increasing the number of pages of a website. Increased number of pages is regarded as a white hat technique and regarded as a good practice in SEO. Adding a lot of fresh content creates uniqueness over the internet and improves the search results. It is advisable to update the website time to time by adding new and fresh content. The sites which are updated regularly comply with the search engine algorithms and generate good rankings in search engine result pages.
Real Estates are the assets that generate income. Generally real estate property is held as part of a larger portfolio because it can bring more returns or reduce portfolio risk at the same level of return. Investment is real estates are considered as fairly low-risk investment as these are less volatile than stocks. The following are some of the benefits of investing in Real Estate.
High Leverage: Leverage is the amount of money that is borrowed to get the potential return on investment. Banks give loans by calculating the amount of the loan and dividing it by the value of the property. You can get fifty to hundred percent of the value of the property. This high leverage results in a higher return for the realtor at a lower risk. (as 80% of the purchase price was provided by the bank). Here the investor will probably use relatively a small percentage of his own money to make the property purchase, and the majority of the money is being provided by the lender (banks).
Tax Benefits: A person getting mortgage loan can have a number of deductions as he is entitled to get exempt from taxes, by claiming the interest paid on the loan, repairs and maintenance, depreciation on building and its capital improvements, rates and taxes, travel to and from the property to facilitate repairs etc. Further, tax deductions can also be claimed in case of negative gearing, where the cost of keeping the investment property exceeds the income gained from it.
Earn Income for rest of life: If you rent out the rental properties in real estate, you can earn income without working. Here the rent supplements your earning income. This is the reason for which these property assets are called as income producing assets. Many people like the idea of an investing in an asset that can reap returns even in their retirement. When you have enough of rental income, you can quit your job.
Gasoline engine automobiles use both mechanical and electronic fuel injection systems. Diesel engines are mostly equipped with mechanical type injection systems. Due to advancement in technology, mechanical injection system were replaced by electronic fuel injection in diesel engines. We are going to discuss the working of continuous Injection system.
Working of continuous injection system (CIS)
The Continuous Injection System (CIS) is a mechanical fuel injection system. The basic working principle of CIS is continuously injection of fuel into the intake valve of the engine through the electric pump. The measure of fuel supplied is measured by an air flow measuring device. Some CIS systems are equipped with feedback controllers.
The primary fuel circuit comprises an electric pump used to suck the fuel from fuel tank. The fuel then enters an accumulator. The accumulator is a container that is located in the fuel line. It consists of a spring-loaded diaphragm. The diaphragm performs fuel damping and delays the pressure build-up initially when you start the engine.
When you shut down the engine, the expanded chamber (in the accumulator) will keep the system under required pressure for a good hot restart with no vapor locking – a problem generally associated with gasoline engines. Fuel is supplied through a large fuel filter to mixture control unit.
The mixture control unit is an important component of the CIS system. It consists of an airflow sensor and a fuel distributor. The air sensor connects a counterbalancing lever.
The air sensor and lever are freely suspended bodies that move up and down on a fulcrum connected to the lever. The accelerator pedal link is connected to a throttle that is closer to the manifold and intake valves of an air sensor. By pressing the accelerator pedal, the throttle valve opens.
In order to maintain accurate fuel pressure, a pressure regulator or a pressure relief valve is located in the primary fuel circuit of the fuel distributor and the excess fuel is sent back to the fuel tank via a return line. An appropriate pressure difference has to be maintained and it’s controlled by a pressure valve.
The valve consists of a spring loaded diaphragm of steel and an outlet to the fuel injectors. The diaphragm keep lower chambers and the upper chambers away from each other. The valves keeps the exact pressure difference. The diaphragm opens to the extent depending on the measure of fuel flows.
The diaphragm opens less if a lower amount of fuel goes into the upper chamber, and less fuel goes to the injectors. A consistently maintained difference in pressure in the upper and lower chambers.
Electrical cars does not use fossil fuels and depend on electrical power for their operation. They do not emit harmful gases and are eco-friendly. The electrical power is catered with the help of batteries that propel the vehicle’s motors. The batteries can be charged at home with the help of power mains socket.
Features of an electrical car
In place of an engine, electrical motors are the main parts that provide the necessary force for the operation of the vehicle. The motors can be of two types namely DC motors or the AC motors. In any of the cases, power electronic techniques have to be employed to make the mains power suitable for battery charging and to make the battery power suitable for the operation of the vehicle.
The power supply of the mains is AC in nature, whereas batteries can be charged with the DC current. Solid state power electronic rectifiers are used to convert AC power into the DC current for charging of batteries.
After the batteries are charged, the stored power has to be supplied to motors for their operation. But the battery power has to be modified to suit the motor type and requirement. In case of AC motors being used, the DC power of batteries has to be converted into AC by using inverters and voltage step up has to be done to suit the motors. If they are DC motors, then certain modifications have to be done in the power quality with the help of choppers to suit the motor requirement.
Prospects for a cleaner future
The developments in the field of electronics have come as a major benefit for development of electric vehicles. Electric vehicles are quieter in operation and practically do not emit any exhaust gases. This comes as an advantage over conventional vehicles that emit harmful gases that pollute the environment and cause global warming. Though the size and capacity of the batteries is a major challenge in the domain of electric vehicles, extensive research is being done by the manufacturers to overcome the problem. Pretty soon we can expect to see an era of transportation with the means of electric vehicles.
Fire exits are a effective way of evacuating the workforce out of the workplace in case of a fire hazard. It is the employer’s responsibility to ensure that the safety of the employees is not compromised. Hence, he is responsible for providing a fire exit at the workplace and see to it does not compromise the safety of the personnel in case of a hazard. The design and construction of the fire exit plays a pivotal role in ensuring this.
How many fire exits are required?
OSHA provides certain guidelines for the design and construction of the fire exits to ensure that it serves it purpose to the maximum extent. At least 2 fire exits should be provided at the workplace and they should be far from each other. This makes sure that even if one is not accessible due to fire or some other factors that may have rendered them useless; the other fire exit is available for evacuation. An exception is there to this guideline and even one fire exit is allowed but it should account for proper and timely evacuation of all the employees without casualty.
Parts of a fire exit
The fire exit is classified into three following parts:
- Exit access: This generally refers to the mouth of the exit; the portion leading to the exit.
- Exit: This is the portion of the exit route that provides safe passage to the employee by a separated way free from risk that will lead to a safe place.
- Exit discharge: This is the exterior portion of the exit route that will lead directly outwards toward a safe place like some street, walkways, refuge area, open space etc.
OSHA guidelines for construction and design of exit routes
OSHA provides guidelines regarding the design and construction of the fire exits. These guidelines are as follows:
- The fire exits must be permanently integrated parts of the workplace.
- The fire exits must be large enough to hold all the employees and it should lead directly outside or some other place like walkways, street, public way that has an access to outside.
- Fire exits that lead to points beyond exit discharges should be clearly marked and displayed for fire exits. It may include doors, partitions etc and the directions should be clearly marked indicating the direction of evacuation.
- The fire exit routes must be unlocked both from inside and outside when employees are in the workplace and any systems that will lock the doorway in case of faulty operation should be discouraged.
- The doors used in the fire exits should be preferably side hinged and they should swing open in the direction of the exit. This comes helpful in a way that it does not obstruct the way of the employees when they are evacuating hurriedly.
- The fire exits should be designed to accommodate all the occupants of the workplace in case of a hazard. The capacity of the fire exit should not decrease in the exit route towards the exit discharge.
- The ceiling height of the fire exit route should be at least 7 feet and 6 inches and the exits must be minimum 28 inches wide at each point of the route. The presence of obstacles that reduce that dimensions of the pathway should be discouraged and the exit route should be free from all such obstacles.
- If the fire exit connects 3 or less number of floors, then it that material used for fire exits should have at least one hour fire resistance rating. If the fire exit connects more than 3 floors, then the material need to have at least how hour fire resistance rating.
- If outdoor exit routes are being considered, then following points should be kept in mind:
- Proper safety for the employees must be ensured while they are in the fire exits. This includes guardrails and sheets covering the route if snow or ice is likely to accumulate.
- The paths should be straight and walkways should be smooth, solid and highly leveled.
- The dead ends should not be more than 20 feet long.